Stress and neuroactive steroids

One study has found that genetic variations between individuals in the HTR2A gene may to some extent account for the difference in outcome of antidepressant treatment, so that patients suffering from major depressive disorder and treated with Citalopram may benefit more than others if they have one particular genotype. [84] In this study 768 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) across 68 genes were investigated and a SNP—termed rs7997012 —in the second intron of the HTR2A gene showed significant association with treatment outcome.

Besides the monosaccharides, honey contains a variety of oligosaccharides which constitute about 5-10 % of the total carbohydrates in honey [ 9 , 80 ]. Oligosaccharides are sugars formed from the condensation of monosaccharides (usually 2 to 6). These monosaccharide monomers are linked together by a glycosidic bond [ 42 ]. Based on the number of their monosaccharide units, oligosaccharides are grouped into disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, pentasaccharides and hexasaccharides. Some of the oligosaccharides which are present in honey include maltose, sucrose, melezitose, palatinose, trehalose, raffinose, isomaltose, maltulose, maltotriose, panose, erlose, turanose, gentiobiose and cellobiose [ 80 - 83 ]. The molecular structures of these oligosaccharides are presented in figures 2 , 3 and 4 [ 29 , 84 - 87 ]. The effect of honey on beneficial or non-pathogenic gut microorganisms is well documented [ 80 ]. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies has shown that honey markedly increased the number of Lactobacillus ( L. acidophilus and L. plantarum ) counts [ 88 ]. Honey was also reported to enhance the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrukeii sub. sp. bulgaricus [ 89 ] . The study also showed that honey enhanced lactic acid production [ 89 ]. The fact that the effect of honey on these microbes was comparable to that of fructose or sucrose implies that the sugar constituents of honey might contribute to the prebiotic effect of honey. Similarly, a study that investigated the effect of honey (5% w/v) on five different species of human intestinal Bifidobacterium ( B. longum, B. adolescentis, B. breve, B. bifidum and B. infantis ) revealed that honey considerably augmented the growth of these bacteria [ 90 ]. The study further showed that the effect of honey on these microbes, as measured by production of lactic and acetic acid, was comparable to that of fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide or inulin [ 90 ]. As reported by Sanz et al., fractions of honey oligosaccharides exhibited prebiotic activity and increased the populations of beneficial or non-pathogenic bacteria, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria [ 91 ]. A number of other studies have also documented the beneficial effect of different varieties of honey on the growth and activity of intestinal microorganisms [ 92 , 93 ].

The pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines at the GABA A receptor are similar to those of neurosteroids . Neuroactive steroids are positive allosteric modulators of the GABA A receptor, enhancing GABA function and in turn have effects on mood and other functions. Many benzodiazepines ( diazepam , medazepam , estazolam , temazepam , flunitrazepam and nitrazepam) potently inhibit the enzymes involved in the metabolism of neurosteroids. The tetrahydroxazole ring that cloxazolam and oxazolam have decreases the inhibitory potency of benzodiazepines on neurosteroids. Thus there could be subtle differences between cloxazolam and other benzodiazepines. [12] However, because the parent prodrugs of cloxazolam and oxazolam were tested rather than the active metabolites, this is purely speculative.

Stress and neuroactive steroids

stress and neuroactive steroids

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