Basal serum levels and ACTH-induced increments ('delta-values') of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) and its sulfate (DHAS), 4-androstene-3,17-dione (A-4), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), cortisol and testosterone and serum albumin levels were studied in patients with prostatic cancer before treatment and after orchidectomy or during estrogen treatment (intramuscular polyestradiol phosphate during the first 3 months, followed by another 3 months with additional oral ethinyl estradiol). Orchidectomy as well as single drug intramuscular or oral + intramuscular estrogens exerted a similar suppressive effect on basal levels of A-4 and 17-OHP. Orchidectomy caused a slight decrease in basal DHAS, while combined oral + intramuscular estrogens caused a pronounced decrease in basal DHAS and also in DHA. Single drug intramuscular estrogens did not affect basal DHA or DHAS levels. Increased basal cortisol levels appeared during combined oral + intramuscular estrogen therapy. delta DHA and delta A-4 values were unaffected by endocrine treatment, but delta 17-OHP and delta cortisol increased slightly after orchidectomy and during estrogen therapy. Significantly decreased albumin levels were only observed during combined oral + intramuscular estrogen treatment. Determination of estriol, which is a major metabolite of estradiol originating from polyestradiol phosphate, revealed significantly higher estriol levels during combined oral + intramuscular estrogen treatment than during single drug intramuscular estrogen therapy, indicating an increased induction of hepatic 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity. The pronounced decreases in DHAS and also in DHA during combined oral + intramuscular estrogen treatment are probably another reflexion of the liver side effects of oral estrogens.
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Although ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are classified as stimulants, they have different effects on performance. Ten-kilometer run time was decreased with ephedrine supplementation 30 and anaerobic performance was improved 31 ; however, a meta-analysis of eight studies found insufficient evidence to support a performance benefit with ephedrine. 32 Crossover studies have failed to demonstrate an improvement in fatigue 33 or prolonged high-intensity cycling performance 34 with pseudoephedrine ingestion, but one small study did find a decrease in 1,500-meter running time. 35